The Japanese military hegemons Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi were responsible for major developments in Japanese castle architecture during the Japan's Edo period (1600-1568). Hideyoshi was responsible for the construction of Osaka castle in 1583. The most important step in building a castle was the site planning (nawabari), in which the building's outline was fixed on the prospective site by stretching ropes. Ideally, a castle was composed of a main compound or ward (hommaru) centred around the donjon or main tower (tenshu) surrounded by or connected with minor compounds or enclosures. There were several entrances to a castle but the important ones were called the ote and karamete. The former was the main entrance and the latter the rear entrance. In case the castle was overrun, the karamete could be used as an avenue of escape. A moat (hori) or system of moats, ponds, waterways and trenches surrounded the castle and natural features of the land were also employed in its fortifications. In order to reach the donjon it was necessary to traverse a mazelike route. Stone foundation walls (ishigaki) were built vertically in earlier times on sites with foundation soil, but where the ground was not stable, walls with a concave profile came to be used for both structural and decorative reasons. The early donjon had exposed wood members, but at the height of the castle-building era most surfaces came to be plastered.
Sizes and Prices
Printing and Shipping
- All prices are in Australian Dollars $
- Credit Card payments can be made through the PayPal system on the website. Ilya Genkin Photography is a verified PayPal Business member and Paypal provides you with 100% security. Through PayPal, you can pay with any major credit card or debit card or your PayPal account. The payment is done securely and in realtime.
- I also offer Direct Bank Deposit for Australian customers.
- Please use xe.com website to convert prices to your local currency.
Black and White Prints
- All Printing is done in Australia by a professional photographic print lab.
- After printing, your photographic print is personally inspected by myself to guarantee your chosen print is beautifully prepared and presented. After close inspection I hand sign every print.
- It's then covered, rolled and packed into a hard cylinder tube to guarantee safe delivery.
- All shipping costs within Australia are included in the price of the print.
- Shipping within Australia is sent via Express Post Registered Mail with full insurance.
- All international postage is handled via FedEx with tracking information and full insurance.
- For International Orders your country may add an import tax at time of arrival in your country. You may need to enquiry about your specific country import taxes if they apply at all.
- At present prints are sent as print only so you may source the frame that suits your home or office locally.
- Quoted sizes for canvas will include the gallery wrap so allow a size reduction of approx. 5cm X 5cm (2" X 2").
- All canvas prints can be stretched around a 5cm (2") frame at any good quality local framer.
- Please allow up to 14 working days for delivery of your chosen print and 21 days for canvas prints.
Any of the photos in my extensive collection can be made into black and white works of art. Please check
the black and white landscape photography page how to get black and white prints from me.
All prints come with a 100% satisfaction guarantee. If for any reason you are not completely
happy with your print, I will provide a full refund for any print returned in new condition within one month of
the purchase date, except for prints with custom cropping or non-standard aspect ratio. I carefully pack and
ship the prints, but if it were to be damaged during transit, I will replace the print free of charge. Prints
have to be returned before I send replacements. Sorry, no exceptions.
International customers (USA, Canada, UK, Europe, Asia and other non-Australian customers),
please note that refund does not include international shipping fee. Only the print price will be
Please Note: Whilst the utmost care has been taken to accurately represent the color and contrast in my online gallery, due to web limitations with jpeg web images and the differences in individual user's monitor settings, printed colors may differ slightly from the photographs viewed on this website thus your final printed photograph will be vasty superior in color, sharpness tone and quality.
For more information on fine art prints, prices, payments, shipping and handling please
see Fine Art Prints page
architecture, Asia, Asian, building, castle, Chuo-ku, Chuoku, destinations, detail, East Asia, exterior, external, facade, heritage, Honshu, horizontal, Japan, Japanese, JP, JPN, Kansai, landscape, Nihon, Osaka Castle, Osaka-jo, Osakajo, outdoor, outside, prefecture, region, roof, tourism, tourist, travel, world
This image id JP-OSAKA-0009 of Osaka Castle, is copyrighted © by Ilya Genkin. This is not a public domain image.